Sukkot: Celebrating Jerusalem as the Center of the Earth


One of the most curious phenomena associated with the rituals of the Second Temple Judaism is the water libation offered at the Temple on Sukkot. The Torah prescribes a very strict and detailed regime of sacrifices: these include offerings of incense and livestock; grain in various forms, sometimes mixed with oil and frankincense; and libations of wine upon the altar. The exact composition of the offering appropriate for each occasion is strictly regulated; violation of these strictures, and the unauthorized offering of sacrifices on the Temple altar, are considered serious offenses.

The Four Species in Ancient Jewish Art


While some believe that ancient Jewish culture was primarily textual, based on written and oral traditions, studies of Jewish art have revealed another cultural dimension of ancient Jewry: the visual dimension. Jews expressed their belief and opinions using not only the vehicles of Bible, Midrash and Halakha, but of art as well. Examples of creative artwork are found in the context of daily life, such as homes and tombs, and, following the destruction of the Temple, in the religious and ritual context of the synagogue. Ancient Jewish art is often of a symbolic character, in which a single symbol might express a whole set of meanings and associations for the observer. For us, viewing this art from a span of 1500 or more years, decoding these symbols can be a complicated task. As we approach the festival of Sukkot, let us examine the symbol of the Four Species, seeing how its conceptual and symbolic aspects are expressed in various works of art.

Isru Hag: Binding the Festival with Eating and Drinking


What does it mean to tie the festival with ropes? Many scholars, following Ibn Ezra, claim that the reference is to the festival offering, an animal bound up in rope and brought to the edge of the altar, which was decorated with horns, or a sacrificial animal tied directly to the horns of the altar with rope.[note]However, the word hag, “festival”, is never used in the sense of a sacrificial animal, and we have no other reference to a procession in which the animals were led live, bound in cords, up to the edge of the altar, and there is certainly no reference to binding the animal’s leash to the altar horns themselves. This has led other scholars to claim that the reference is to a circular procession or dance (hag, hug) in which the dancers are linked to one another with branches (avotim), a poetic description of processions around the altar in which the people carried branches. One of the four species taken up on Sukkot, the myrtle, is referred to in Leviticus 23:40 as “the branch of an avot (leafy) tree”.[/note]

Why do we recite Psalm 27 from Rosh Hodesh Elul until Hoshanah Rabbah?


From Rosh Hodesh Elul until Hoshanah Rabbah, Ashkenazic Jews recite Psalm 27, The Penitential Psalm, every morning and every evening for 51 days. What is the origin of this custom? Why do we recite this particular psalm at this particular season? And what is its message to us today?

Men and Women: Beyond Perfunctory Equality to a Spiritual Covenant


The Rabbis taught: “Sins between man and God are atoned for by Yom Kippur; those between man and his fellow, Yom Kippur does not atone for, until he appeases his fellow.” (Mishna Tractate Yoma 8:9). But how does one atone for an ideology that has failed to achieve its aims? How does a worldview atone for its errors, how is it to be forgiven? Our generation, born after the Holocaust and birth of the State of Israel, had hoped to bring to the Jewish world, through feminism, increased mutual respect and closeness between men and women. Have we succeeded?

Why and When Do We Read The Book of Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) In Public?


There is a widespread custom to read the book of Kohelet on Sukkot or Shmini Atzeret or Simhat Torah. Why do we read Kohelet at this time of year? When exactly is Kohelet read? Is this a custom or an obligation?

The Four Faces of Simhat Torah


The Jewish people loves Simhat Torah . Even Jews who do not usually come to the synagogue every Shabbat, make an effort to come on Simhat Torah in order to dance and have an aliyah . This is not surprising. Simhat Torah is a spiritual and physical delight which allows Jews to rejoice and dance with body and soul. But Simhat Torah is much more than a day of joy and dancing. At second glance, it contains a number of deeper messages which are easy to miss amidst the enthusiasm of the holiday.

Why do we Sit in the Sukkah?


The holiday of Sukkot has been blessed with many beautiful laws and customs: the recitation of Hallel, Ushpizin (welcoming our ancestors as honored guests), Hoshanot, the Simchat Bet Hasho’evah celebrations, reading the book of Kohelet, and, of course, blessing and waving the Arba’ah Minim – the four species. Yet, needless to say, the most basic mitzvah is that of dwelling in a sukkah. But why do we sit in the sukkah? The Torah itself gives two reasons, one agricultural and one historical.